Friday, December 19, 2014

Van de Graaff Generator

A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high amounts of electrical potential on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929. The potential difference achieved in modern Van de Graaff generators can reach 5 megavolts. A tabletop version can produce on the order of 100,000 volts and can store enough energy to produce a visible spark.

A Van de Graaff generator operates by transferring electric charge from a moving belt to a terminal. The high voltages generated by the Van de Graaff generator can be used for accelerating subatomic particles to high speeds, making the generator a useful tool for fundamental physics research.

The Van de Graaff generator was developed, starting in 1929, by physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff at Princeton University on a fellowship, with help from colleague Nicholas Burke. The first model was demonstrated in October 1929.  He got $100 from his department and built better generator. By 1931 he could report achieving 1.5 million volts, saying "The machine is simple, inexpensive, and portable. An ordinary lamp socket furnishes the only power needed." According to  patent application, it had two 60-cm-diameter charge-accumulation spheres mounted on borosilicate glass columns 180 cm high; the apparatus cost only $90 in 1931.

Van de Graaff applied for a second patent in December 1931 and got it. It was assigned to MIT in exchange for a share of net income.

In 1933, Van de Graaff built a 40-foot (12-m) model at MIT's Round Hill facility, the use of which was donated by Colonel Edward H. R. Green.



Tutor Vista upload


SpanglerScience TV upload

Saturday, December 6, 2014



Kai Furmans and Frank Schonung
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
Kevin R. Gue
Auburn University, USA

Abstract - One disadvantage of automated material handling systems is their
relative inflexibility: once racks are installed and conveyors are laid, making even
minor changes to a system can be cumbersome and expensive. However, recent
progress in the capabilities and cost of basic system components, such as
controllers, drives, and sensors, has made possible a new class of material handling
systems having a much higher degree of flexibility.

The paper provides underlying design principles for such systems and describes some  prototype "plug-and work" systems, which provide ease of reconfiguration.

Smart Rack

The SmartRack is a rack with HF-RFID sensors in each channel or slot. Bins in each channel are equipped with the matching RFID-tags, which contain all necessary information about the parts as well as their origin and their destination. Bins in the rack have a unique ID, and the current status is transferred to a webservice, which allows the supplier to get current inventory and to control
production and resupply accordingly.  The design is simple, but effective:

The SmartRack is made modular because and more channels can easily be added if more part numbers must be stored. SmartRack integrates all functions necessary to create the decentralized, physical material flow via a micro-controller in each rack which allows information to be exchanged on a higher level between the user and the system.


The Flexconveyor is a modular, unit-sized conveyor, which can be combined with other modules to create a conveyor network. Each module is able to convey in the four cardinal directions (north, south, east, west). The modules are connected by a serial connection, which is used to exchange all necessary information between adjacent modules. Each module uses light beams to detect any bins present and has an RFID reader, which identifies the bins and determines the destination.

The modules exchange information with each other on several levels. The first is topological—when each module is connected, modules pass messages to discover or update the existing topology. Next is routing information: During the message passing, each module executes an algorithm to update connections of its neighbors (and their neighbors, and so on), as well as the the distance (measured in modules) to each reachable module. This information is exchanged continuously between adjacent neighbors, leading quickly to complete routing information, which shows which direction an individual module should convey in order to send its bin to its destination most efficiently. When material from a bin is to be moved, a module reads its RFID tag and determines the target module. Based on the routing matrix, the appropriate port is selected, which is the link with the shortest distance to the destination. Then a “telegram” is sent to the respective port, asking whether the route towards the destination is available. The next module forwards this telegram to its neighbor, and so on, until the destination module is  reached. The destination then sends back a positive or negative answer to the origin module, which then takes the appropriate action (convey or not). The system is completely decentralized, and may be reconfigured in a matter of minutes. The Flexconveyor uses all the design principles described in the paper.  

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Selecting Energy Efficient Centrifugal Pumps


Centrifugal pumps handle high flow rates, provide smooth, nonpulsating delivery,
and regulate the flow rate over a wide range without damaging the pump. Centrifugal
pumps have few moving parts, and the wear caused by normal operation is minimal.
They are also compact and easily disassembled for maintenance.

The efficiency of  pumping system depends on relationships between fluid flow rate, piping
layout, control methodology, and pump selection. Selection of a centrifugal pump is
based on  its application.

Centrifugal Pump Performance

Centrifugal pumps are generally divided into three classes: radial flow, mixed flow,
and axial flow. Impeller design variations can be used to design specific pumps that  perform efficiently under specified conditions that vary from low flow rate with high head to high flow rate with low head. The amount of fluid a centrifugal pump moves depends on the differential
pressure or head it supplies. The flow rate increases as the head decreases.

Manufacturers  provide information on  range of heads and flow rates that a particular pump model can provide.

Before you select a pump model, examine its performance curve, which is indicated by
its head-flow rate or operating curve. The curve shows the pump’s capacity (in gallons
per minute [gpm]) plotted against total developed head (in feet). It also shows efficiency
(percentage), required power input (in brake-horsepower [bhp]), and suction head
requirements (net positive suction head requirement in feet) over a range of flow rates.
Pump curves also indicate pump size and type, operating speed (in revolutions per
minute), and impeller size (in inches). It also shows the pump’s best efficiency point (BEP).
The pump operates most cost effectively when the operating point is close to the BEP.

Pumps can generally be ordered with a variety of impeller sizes. Each impeller has a
separate performance curve  To minimize pumping system energy
consumption, select a pump so the system requirement is within 20% of pump's
BEP, and select a mid range impeller that can be trimmed or replaced to meet higher or
lower flow rate requirements.Select a pump with high efficiency contours over your
range of expected operating points. A few points of efficiency improvement can
save significant energy over the life of the pump.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Hydrogen Cars

19 November

Audi unveiled the A7 h-tron quattro with hydrogen fuel cell that will go over 300 miles between refuellings. At the moment it is only a demonstration car. But Audi says it can deliver production version whenever infrastructure is ready for hydrogen supply.

18 November 2014

Now hydrogen cars available for commercial use.

Hyundai has been leasing the hydrogen-powered Tucson sport utility, which it describes as the world’s first mass-produced fuel cell car, since June, for a $2,999 down payment, and $499 a month. (That includes the hydrogen.)

Toyota is introducing a sedan called Mirai, which means “future” in Japanese.

The Mirai will go on sale in California this year for $57,500 — cheaper than the Tesla Model S.

News about Mirai

Japan Launch Event for Mirai Fuel Cell Sedan

Toyota Global News Room

Akiyo Toyoda on Mirai
2.4 minutes

Toyota Global Newsroom

How fuel cells work?

Friday, November 14, 2014

Ten Types of Smart Engineering - 2013

Need‐of‐the‐Hour Engineering:
Improvised Engineering:
Strip‐Down Engineering:
Performance‐Boosting Engineering:
IntelliSys Engineering:  
Cross‐Pollination Engineering:
Smart‐Auxiliary Engineering:
Sustainable Engineering:
Nature‐Inspired Engineering:
Forward‐Looking Engineering:

Dr. Aloknath De, SrVP and CTO, Samsung India‐Bangalore

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Urea Fertilizer Plant - China - Specifications and Technology Employed

The revamping and expansion project for 180,000t/a of synthetic ammonia and 270,000t/a of urea of Huainan Chemical General Works.

It is a typical synthetic ammonia plant with coal as raw material.

Consultant  ECEC,is a typical synthetic ammonia plant with coal as raw material.

East China Engineering Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (ECEC)

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Friday, September 12, 2014

Howitzer - Artillery Weapon

A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles at relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent. Such weapons have barrel length 15 to 25 times the caliber of the gun.

In the terminology  used by European till 20th century, the howitzer stood between the "gun" ( longer barrel, larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher velocities, and flatter trajectories) and the "mortar" (used to fire at higher angles of ascent and descent).

By the early 20th century the differences between guns and howitzers is explained as follows:

Guns - higher velocity and longer range, single charge propellant, maximum elevation generally less than 35 degrees.
Howitzers - lower velocity and shorter range, multi-charge propellant, maximum elevation typically more than 45 degrees

Since the First World War, equipment that has the features of gun and the earlier howitzer appeared. Thus, the category of gun-howitzer - relatively long barrels and high muzzle velocity combined with multiple propelling charges and high maximum elevation came into being. But in USA,  gun-howitzers have been officially described as "howitzers" for more than sixty years. So "howitzer" is being used now as  a generic term for any kind of artillery piece that is designed to attack targets using indirect fire.

Since World War II, howitzers combining the earlier guns and howitzers have become popular artillery weapons.

Saturday, June 7, 2014

Engineering and Technology News - Bulletin Board 2014

June 2014

7 June 2014
Top Tech News - MIT Tech Review

1000 miles per hour Car to be tested in 2016
Bloodhound SSC

Japan test broadcasts super HD TV broadcast - 4K technology


May 2014

Suitcase Scooter - Developed by Chinese farmer

Samsonite Micro Suitcase Scooter

New Technologies to Prevent Collisions of Vehicles

Demand for Engineering Plastics is increasing.

The Cutest Micro Cars produced in the 20th Century

January 2014

Top 10 technologies of 2013

MIT Review 10 Breakthrough Technologies - 2013

Friday, June 6, 2014

Top 12 Strategic Technologies or Trends - 2014

2014 Compilation

Information technology
Disease and globalization
Resource management
Environmental degradation
Economic integration
Knowledge dissemination


In the span of a decade, biotechnology has evolved from an R&D initiative to a major commercial force in the agriculture and healthcare industries. Even other manufacturers should prepare for an increase in biotech applications as well.Companies that develop safe biotech applications accepted by the public and countries that address safety concernsa and provide support to Biotech will reap enormous profits.

In February 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, a bionic eye. The eye allows individuals with a blindness called retinitis pigmentosa to detect light and dark.

Ernst & Young estimated the worldwide biotech industry revenue for publicly held companies to be $89.8 billion in 2012. Of that, the U.S. accounted for $63.7 billion.

Currently, the pharmaceutical industry is perhaps the biggest beneficiary of biotech.
global drug sales hit the $1 trillion mark last year for the first time in history. Genetically engineered drugs – drugs generated with living cells rather than with chemicals – account for an estimated 10 percent of the total global prescription drugs market.

China’s pharmaceutical market, worth $108 billion in 2005, is estimated to grow to $900 billion by 2020.

In 2010, the U.N.’s Food and Agriculture Organization predicted that global agricultural output must increase 70 percent by 2050 to feed the world’s anticipated population of 9 billion.

Source: Industrial Management, January - February 2014

10 Breakthrough Technologies 2014 - MIT Review

Agricultural drones
Key companies - 3D Robotics, Yamaha, Precision Hawk

Ultraprivate smart phones

Brain mapping
Neuromorphic chips
Genome editing
Microscale 3-D printing
Mobile collaboration
Oculus rift
Agile robots
Smart wind and solar power

Monday, May 12, 2014

Internet of Things - 2014 Scenario

5 Popular technologies
1. Smart watches
2. Automated Home
3. Fitness tracking devices
4. Connected retail - Mobile device use in eShopping
5. Virtual and augmented reality devices!MJ6fM

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Material Handling Solutions and Equipment - Information Board


The One Level Shuttle AS-RS (OLS) is a highly efficient Automated Storage and Retrieval System designed for expedited handling of cartons, totes, and trays in high transaction environments.

Material Handling Solutions: A look into AutomatedRobotics
2010 paper
This paper looks at two automated material handling solutions: Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) and Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs).
The first step in automating material handling occurred in the 1950s with the implementation of Automatic Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS). AGVS are defined as battery-driven industrial trucks with contactless steering (Müller, 1983). These trucks operate by following a guided system to transport materials throughout a facility.

AMRs use computer-based vision systems to navigate through their environment.The idea behind vision guided robots is that they understand where there are and where they need to be. AMRs can come in the same designs as AGVs, and are suitable for any distributing or manufacturing environment. They have clear advantages over AGVS because:
• AMRs do not require guide paths
• AMRs store the layout of the facility
• AMRs can be assigned tasks similarly to AGV
• AMRs can be effective in small numbers
• AMRs with manipulator arms can perform virtually any task.

The Cost Benefit analysis is given in the paper 

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Zeroshift - New Transmission Technology - of 21st Century

Kiwi inventor Bill Martin has developed a gearbox .
The last big breakthrough in automatic gearboxes was in 1928 with synchromesh.

The Zeroshift transmission can shift gears in zero seconds and do it seamlessly by using electronically controlled actuators and an automated single dry clutch. These actuators also can be powered by either air or hydraulic pressure, which greatly expands the type of vehicle applications.

The secret behind the Zeroshift concept is the elimination synchro rings, which are replaced bydog clutches. These dog clutches automatically upshift and downshift the transmission

Automatic Transmission in Automobiles (Cars)

How Automatic Transmissions Work


Many of the mechanisms and technologies that are used in the modern automatic transmission system  were already in use in manual transmissions. Transmission bands and planetary gears were used in the manual transmission for the Ford Model T and Model K (1906). Fluid coupling was used by General Motors in 1937.

These technologies were first developed in the early 1900s in Germany for use in marine applications.

Semi-automatic transmissions appeared in a major automotive brand in 1937. With planetary gears and a conventional friction clutch, these transmissions allowed easier shifting and required less driving skill. Cadillac and Oldsmobile issued models with  automatic transmission through 1939. Buick used it  in 1938. The AST never inspired the driving public and was not supported by large sales numbers.

The 1948 Oldsmobile was the first model to use a true automatic transmission. The Hyrdo-Matic was developed by GM engineer, Earl Thompson,  The Hydro-Matic went through continual upgrading and refinements through 1955. But, the basic design and theory used were consistent throughout its remarkably long life span.  Other auto manufacturers purchased and used the Hydro-Matic. These included:

Hudson Nash Rambler
Frazer Nash Kaiser
Willys Lincoln
Rolls-Royce Bentley

General Motors replaced the Hydro-Matic in 1956 with the Jetaway. The "Jet" was not a roaring success and quickly gave way to the Turbo Hydromatic.

Chrysler's Fluid Drive was introduced in 1939, but this was really a manual transmission that used a fluid coupling to make shifting easier. Chrysler first produced a semi-automatic transmission in 1942 and was late in developing their own true automatic transmission, introducing the two-speed PowerFlite in 1954.

BorgWarner engineered the first automatic transmission used by Ford, introduced in 1950.

Mercedes introduced their first automatic in 1962. Rolls Royce's 1955 intro was with GM's Hydro-Matic. Daimler first used a BorgWarner 4-speed in 1962.

Through the 1980s changes and advances occurred quickly. Special features seemed to be the primary focus of transmission designers.

Options included:

     Manual-or-automatic shifting - allowed      drivers to take control of the shifting when      they wished

     Push-button shifting - a Chrysler Torqueflite      innovation that used a two-cable mechanism

     Edsel's Teletouch shifting - buttons in the      middle of the steering wheel that operated      an electric shift motor

     Economy-performance settings - the      driver could reset with the push of a button

     Over-drive in 3, 4, and 4-plus-overdrive      configurations

     Hill-hold - prevented the vehicle from      rolling backwards at idle on an upgrade

     Ignition lock coupling - anti-theft feature

In the late 1980s, use of computers in cars started. and resulted in the introduction of electronic controls for automatic transmissions. Solenoids and sensors integrate with multiple onboard computers to control shifting and gear ratio in any imaginable scenario.

Honda's Hondamatic transmission is unique in that it is an automatic that does not use planetary gears. Gears slide on parallel shafts. The Hondamatic is similar neither to other automatic transmissions nor to manual transmissions.

Five-speed, six-speed, seven, and even eight-speed transmissions are currently being used in automobiles. Such technologies are being tested and deployed in an effort to improve economy and efficiency.

CVTs provide continuous torque at engine peek-performance speeds

Transmission research and development is currently leaning toward Automated Manual Transmission technologies. Suzuki has come out with successful technology and is using it in a Indian model Celerio.

Celerio Maruti Suzuki 2014 Model

A new small car, with some variants priced below Rs 4 lakh, is on its way from February 2014 from  Maruti Suzuki India's stable. . Called Celerio, this car  will be a one litre petrol car in two transmissions - manual and automatic. This car will probably deliver mileage of over 20 kmpl. The transmission in automatic mode is called automatic manual transmission ( More details  )

Suzuki Motor Corp, took about three years to develop the technology which has raised the fuel efficiency of the automatic variant to almost equal that of the manual transmission vehicle.  Normally fuel efficiency of automatic transmission is less than that of manual transmission.

Typically, the automatic variant of any car is pricier from the manual transmission variant by about Rs 1 lakh but in the case of Celerio, the price difference between the two variants would be "much less".

The Celerio will be pitched against the likes of Hyundai's Grandi10 and Honda's Brio, whose automatic versions are priced at Rs 6.04 lakh and Rs 6.19 lakh, respectively (ex-showroom, Delhi).

The Celerio will offer a fuel efficiency of 23.1 km per litre and will be offered in six petrol variants - four with Manual transmission and two with Auto Gear Shift.

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Robot Manufacturers and Sellers - India

KUKA Robotics (India) Private Limited
Phone: +91 124 4635774
Fax: +91 124 4635773


As a pioneer in robotics and robotic arm technology, the KUKA Robot Group is one of the leading suppliers and manufacturers of robotic systems worldwide.  KUKA offers a unique and wide range of industrial robots and robot systems, covering all common payload categories and robot types.
That means KUKA has a robot perfectly customized for your application and industry – or can design a custom robotic system for your unique needs.  With our cutting-edge robotic arm technology and ingenious engineering, we offer a huge product range, including:
Six-axis robots of all sizes
Cleanroom robots
Heat-resistant robots
SCARA robots
Welding robots
For standard or shelf-mounted robots and heavy-duty versions, mounting is possible on the floor or on the ceiling, making them multifunctional and flexible. Due to the modular structure of KUKA robots, reconfiguration for other tasks is quick and easy.

Fuji Robotics India
Number-One Robotic Palletizer manufacturer in the world. With over 10,000 Robotic Palletizers installed worldwide, FUJI ROBOTICS™ is unmatched in "Palletizing" technology.

Pari Robotics

PARI integrates standard robots from most manufacturers, manufactures a standard range of gantry & portal robots, and designs & builds integration components like transporters, trunions, auxiliary axis, robotic enclosures & end-arm tooling. PARI manufactured standard products are available for third party system integrators and partners for use in systems being built or integrated by them

Standard Articulated Robot
Gantry Robots
Portal Robots
Robot Transporters
Robotic Enclosures
Auxiliary Axis Modules (Linear & Rotary)

Fanuc India

FANUC is the worlds largest manufacturer of Industrial Robots with over 200,000 installations across the world. In India also FANUC maintains its leadership position with total robot installation in excess of 2100.

FANUC believes in providing Robot System Solution to customers. FANUC India has State of the Art System Engineering facilities to provide variety of System Solution on Turnkey Basis. A well trained and experienced team of Engineers involved in Design, Engineering, Manufacturing and Commissioning of Robot Systems.

FANUC Robot is used in a variety of Industry Applications such as Material Handling, Spot Welding, Arc Welding, Machine Tending, Press Tending, Die Cast Extraction & Spray, Ladling, Sand core handling, Forge Tending, Fettling, Ultrasonic Welding, Plasma Spray, Plasma Cutting, Laser Cutting, De burring, Sealant Dispensing, Assembly, Painting & Inspection.

FANUC offers the most extensive range of Robots with carrying payload capacity ranging from 0.5 Kg to 1200 Kg. These Robots come with various mounting configurations such as Floor Mount, Ceiling Mount, Rail (Shuttle) Mount and overhead Gantry Mount. FANUC also offers Application Specific Robots such as Painting Robot, Food Grade type Robot, Wash Down (IP67) type Robot, Arc Welding Robot and Spot Welding Robot.

FANUC Robots are known for very high reliability and performance. FANUC manufactures many components of Robots in-house such as Servo Motor, Servo Amplifier, Mechanical Unit, Robot Controller etc., there-by exercising great control on quality and performance.

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars

Toyota is ready to sell fuel cell cars in 2015

A four-seat sedan, the car is only called Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) for now. The FCV’s range is similar to electric cars, but with the advantage that fill-ups will only take a few minutes. Initially, the FCV will be sold in California where the state has made a commitment to having over one hundred hydrogen filling stations within a decade.



How Hydrogen Cars Work?

Friday, January 10, 2014

Strategic Technologies - Automobile Industry- 2013-14

Automobile Industry Survey - KPMG - 2013

Battery Electric Mobility
Downsizing and Optimizing Internal Combustion Engine
Innovative urban vehicle design concepts
Connected Car Technologies (Car to X communication)

Electric Vehicle Technologies

Plug-in hybrids
Non plug-in-hybrids
Battery electric vehicles with range extender
Fuel cell electric vehicles
Battery electric vehicles

Strategic Technology Management In Indian Auto Component Industry

Top 10 Strategic Technologies in Information Technology for Year 2014

Gartner defines a strategic technology as one with the potential for significant impact on the enterprise performance in the next three years. Significant impacts include a high potential for disruption to IT or the business, the need for a major dollar investment, or the risk of being late to adopt.

A strategic technology may be an existing technology that has matured and/or become suitable for a wider range of uses. It may also be an emerging technology that offers an opportunity for strategic business advantage for early adopters or with potential for significant market disruption in the next five years. These technologies impact the organization's long-term plans, programs and initiatives.

The top 10 technologies should be factored into their strategic planning processes of IT companies and IT intensive companies. This does not necessarily mean adoption and investment in all of the listed technologies by all companies, but companies should evaluate them and  make deliberate decisions about using them during the next two years.

The top 10 technologies - Gartner

Mobile Device Diversity and Management
Mobile Apps and Applications
The Internet of Everything
Hybrid Cloud and IT as Service Broker
Cloud/Client Architecture
The Era of Personal Cloud
Software Defined Anything
Web-Scale IT
Smart Machines
3-D Printing!